2 Text Signs
3 Safety Devices
3.1 Emergency Stop Button
3.2 Category of Safety Plates
3.4 Safety Door Device
3.5 Safety Interlocking System
3.6 Warning Lamps
4 Dangerous Zone
5 Working Area
6.1 Basic Precautions
6.2 Precautions before the Connection of the Power Supply
6.3 Precautions after the Connection of Power Supply
6.5 Precautions before the Operation of the Machine Tool
6.6 Precautions for the Operation of Machine
6.7 Precautions in the Running Period of the Machine Tool
6.8 Precautions in Automatic Running
6.9 Preventive Measures in the Shutdown Period of Working
6.10 Preventive Measures after the Completion of the Work
6.11 Precautions during the Maintenance and Checking Work
6.12 Precautions in Handling Electrical Components
6.13 Precautions during Lubrication
6.14 Precautions in the Handling of Cooling Agent
6.15 Precautions in the Setting of Machine Tool
6.16 Other Precautions
6.17 Fire Prevention Measures
7 User Tasks of the Machine
8 Machinery safety
8.1 General Safety Rules
8.2 Safety Requirements of Hand-operated tools
8.3 Safety Requirements of Main Work of the Machine Tool
9 Electrical Safety
9.1 Safety of Electrical Equipment
9.2 Electrical Hazards and Prevention Measures
9.3 Over-current Relay
9.4 Fault Diagnosis and Various Switch Controls
10 Industrial Accidents
10.1 Reasons of Industrial Accidents
11 Industrial Safety and Protection Measures
11.1 Safety Signs and Colors
11.2 Fire Accidents and Explosion Accidents
11.3 First-aid Measures
11.4 Machinery Safety Regulations
This section provides some descriptions about how to use the machine tool, including instructions about how to guarantee the safety of personnel and avoid damage of the machine tool during the operation of the machine tool. In order to prevent the occurrence of accidents and faults, the operation personnel should carefully read and observe below requirements.
- Operators of the machine tool should have accepted certain training about the operation of machine tools
- The trained operators should have sufficient capacity in the assembly, operation, maintenance, inspection and adjustment of machine tool. After the shutdown of the power supply and air pressure, the operators should add lubricant oil and clean the machine tool according to the regulated working sequence;
- Our company would not be liable for any accidents resulting from operators’ failure in observing the instructions in the manual or resulting from private modification or disassembly of the machine tool.
-Please carefully read and observe relative regulations in the user manual and all safety warnings attached on the machine tool.
-Please do not move or damage any warning signs on the machine tool.
2 Text Signs
The main objective of the contents in connection with safety is to prevent the occurrence of unforeseeable accidents of operators or machine tool. “Danger”, “Warning” and “Caution” indicate the three different safety levels. These texts mainly reflect the danger levels and the occurrence possibility of accidents. Please carefully and fully understand the meaning of below texts before using the machine tool.
Table 1-1: Sign Text and Meaning
Violation with certain requirements may result in death of operators or other similar risks
Violation with certain requirements may result in negative effects to the health of the operator or result in serious injuries to the operator.
Violation with certain requirements may result in slight injury of the operator or damage of the machine tool.
Suggestions or recommendations provided to operators.
3 Safety Devices
- Emergency Stop Button
In case of any risks or incomplete status of the machine tool in the movement or running process, please press down the emergency stop button to stop all operations of the machine.
You should know the position of the emergency stop button to ensure you could press down the button in time during emergency situations.
FIG 1-1: Position of Emergency Stop Button
During emergency stop, the machine operation would enter into below status:
- The machine tool is not ready for running;
- All motors are under STOP status;
- Disconnect the power supply for motors of main spindle and stroke spindle;
During the emergency stop, the power status is shown as below:
- The working lamps would be ON continuously (when the lamps are ON);
- The power supply in control panel is under normal status, and the power supply in AC socket is under normal status;
- In case hydraulic or pneumatic solenoid valve, the power supply should not be interrupted to maintain some functions of the machine tool;
Upon emergency stop, the machine would maintain above status until the operator has released the emergency stop button.
1.3.2 Category of Safety Plates
Safety plates play the roles of safety equipment and they would remind the risk factors and safety considerations to operators operating the equipment. Safety plates would explain the reasons and contents of the dangers and the prevention measures for the safety in the working site. The contents in this chapter are to avoid injuries resulting from machine tools.
Table 1-2: Safety Plates
Table 1-2: Safety Plates (Continued)
Table 1-2: Safety Plates (Continued)
The function of lockout is to prevent the accidental startup of the machine and release of accumulative energy to guarantee the safety of operator in the maintenance and inspection process.
The function of signs is to prevent unauthorized persons to open the handle of the main energy insolation facilities. With the application of labels (labels indicate the equipment management of the energy isolation facilities could not be operated before the removal of the labels), thus achieve the objective of locking the main energy separation equipment).
- Locking/Marking Procedure of Breaker
The relative personnel responsible for the maintenance of the system should realize the importance of the lockout. Moreover, such personnel shall full understand the lockout procedure described in this chapter before any maintenance of this system.
1) After completing the operation of the machine tool by reference of the operation manual, turn off the power supply.
2) Adjust the switch of the main breaker to the position of OFF.
3) Pull out the lock bracket.
4) Use padlock to lock the bracket.
5) Paste the labels onto the lock bracket to remind the maintenance personnel and all other personnel that they should be responsible for accidental startup of the power supply.
The relative personnel in charge of the maintenance of this system should realize the importance of the lockout. Meanwhile, they should fully understand all lockout procedure described in this chapter before commencement of any maintenance work.
If the system is running, implement relative operation to ensure the system would be completely stopped before the lockout.
In case the maintenance is implemented by several persons simultaneously, one supervisor should be appointed to perform the supervision.
The supervisor should keep constant monitoring for the working status and lockout procedure.
- Safety Door Device
- For the safety consideration of the operators, the machine tool has arranged safety devices.
FIG 1-2: Switch of Safety Door
- Fault and Test of the Front Interlocking Device
When the interlocking device is engaged, the door could not be opened to guarantee the safety of operations in the running status of the machine. If the door could be opened due to the fault of the interlocking device, danger may be resulted. Therefore, dangerous components should be locked as soon as possible in case of any fault in the door locking device.
- The door is closed, but the door is not locked due to the fault of the safety switch.
- Damage of the locking key.
Measurement Method of Faults:
1) Shut down the main power supply
2) Replace the components in fault with new components
3) Connect the power supply to verify the locking function
- Safety Interlocking System
The system has arranged interlocking device to reduce the expansion of losses due to abnormities of the system.
Please do not disable or change these interlocking devices.
In case interlocking devices are activated due to abnormities of the system, the functions of the system would be disabled partially or wholly.
Appropriate recovery procedure would be implemented to solve the problems in interlocking device.
FIG 1-3: Interlocking Switch
The interlocking function of the system has three grades, including user, advanced user and manufacturer.
1) The system is under the User Mode if the key is located at the position 1. Under such mode, users could only implement the system set by the system and could not modify any parameters of the system.
2) The system is under the Advanced User Mode if the key is located at the position 2. Besides the implementation of the functions set by the system, users could also modify some parameters like feeding speed, accelerating speed, rotation speed of the main spindle. However, users could not modify the basic configuration of the system, like control pulse, control frequency, voltage compensation, screw distance compensation, return difference compensation and etc.
3) The system is under the Manufacturer Mode if the key is located at the position 3. All the functions of the system would be open to the users, including re-write the PLC of the system. Under such mode, only experienced engineer could modify the parameters of the system. Otherwise, the system would come across various faults and even may fail to startup.
The attempt in changing the safety interlocking devices would not only damage the system, but also may result in serious risks. Only experienced engineer or maintenance personnel could modify and maintain the safety interlocking devices.
Before commencing the operation system of the machine, please check the working status of the interlocking device.
- Warning Lamps
The equipment has indicators in three different colors. Different colors would represent below three different contents:
Table 1-3: Warning Lamps
The lamp would be ON or flashing in case of the occurrence of any emergency or dangerous status.
The yellow lamp indicates the status of STOP and it would be ON or flashing when the system is stopped.
The green lamp indicates normal working status of the system and it would be ON or flashing when the machine is running.
FIG 1-4: Warning Lamp
- Dangerous Zone
This section provides the dangerous factors when the operators are using some functions of the machine. The instructions require the relative operators to take care of the safety of working personnel, describe the risk reasons, and propose the necessary preventive measures in the safety sector of the working site. The objective of this section is to prevent the injuries and accidents resulting from machine tools.
- Machining Area and Working Area
1) Contents of Danger
In case any part of your body has extended into the machine or touched any part of the machine during the running process of the machine, the main spindle under high-speed running, the column and platform under high-speed movement status, rapid cutting oil and high temperature cutting operation may result in serious personal injuries.
Improper treatment of the panel may result in the fault and damage of the machine and endanger the safety of personnel.
The machine may have fire hazards in the running process.
2) Preventive Measures
- Close the door during the running or before the running of the machine;
- Disconnect the power supply of the machine when perform checking or maintenance for the machine;
- Only authorize qualified operators to operate the machine;
- Take measures to prevent the flammable materials from fire breakout in the production process.
- Control Device
1) Danger Contents
After powering on of the machine tool cutters, the touching of any body part with cutters may result in serious injuries.
2) Preventive Measures
- Close the door of control panel before or after the powering on of the machine;
- Disconnect the power supply of the machine when perform checking or maintenance for the machine;
- Except for the checking and maintenance of the machine, please keep away from the control panel.
Machining Area and Working Area
FIG 1-6: Dangerous Area (Machining and Working Area)
FIG 1-6: Dangerous Area (Control Device)
- Working Area
In the system, operation working area and maintenance working area are separated with each other as shown in below FIG. Only maintenance personnel passing professional training could enter into the maintenance working area.
FIG 1-7: Working Area (Operation)
FIG 1-7: Working Area (Maintenance)
In order to avoid personnel injury or equipment damage, the machine tool arranges several kinds of safety devices. The operation personnel should not solely depend on these safety devices. Moreover, they should carefully read below instructions and completely understand the necessary preventive measures to be taken before operating the machine tool.
1.6.1 Basic Precautions
The areas with electric shocking signs like electrical control panel, current converter, motor, inner side of terminal box, operation panel and so forth have high possibility of electric shocking or other accidents in connection with electricity. Please check and guarantee the safety of these areas before operation.
It is highly prohibited to touch the machine tool with wet hands. Otherwise, the operation may suffer electric shocking.
The operators must be familiar with the position of the emergency stop button to ensure they could press down this button without any further thinking during emergency situations.
- Operate after determining the position;
- Operate the machine tool according to the specified method after full understand the technical specification and functions of the machine tools;
- It is highly prohibited to perform authorized dismount or adjustment of the system and the safety cover;
- In the running process of the machine tool, the hands of operators must be away from the rotating materials or equipment;
- Wipe off the water or oil on the ground to avoid the slipping or falling of operators;
- Except for the reasons of repair and maintenance, it is highly prohibited to enter into the machine tool;
- Special persons should be appointed for various tasks and only the appointed personnel could engage in the relative work. When two or more operators are working simultaneously, there operators should exchange the signals with each other before the commencement of next working procedure;
- It is prohibited to place tools, equipment or other materials on the machine tool;
- Special attention should be paid in handling flammable materials like wood, plastic, magnetic materials and etc;
- The modification of machine tool could only be performed after the consent of the responsible person of our company;
- The power supply should be disconnected before the replacement of safety fuse;
- Sufficient working space should be reserved to avoid the falling off of articles;
- Please close the door of machine tool because the internal side of the machine tool is extremely dangerous.
- The machine tool should be checked in each 15 minutes to avoid any errors or faults of the machine tools;
- Shut down the main power supply in case of any fault of the power supply;
- Operators should wear necessary protective equipment for safety operation like safety boots, protective glasses, working clothes, earplugs and etc;
- Operators should wear comfortable and suitable clothes and it is highly prohibited to wear gloves during the operation process;
- The working platforms around the machine tool should be firm and solid, and the platform surface should not be slippery;
- The surrounding areas of the machine tool should be dry and neat, and should have good lighting conditions;
- Before the installation of the machine tool. It is necessary to remove the dust and clips on the control panel and other equipment;
- It is highly prohibited to knock on the operation panel and control panel;
- The parameters and setting should not be changed. In case it does have the necessity, please take appropriate measures to save the parameters and setting before modification;
- Please use the fuse wire with rated current. Otherwise, the normal running of the equipment like NC instruments may be affected;
- Operators under the effect of drug and alcohol should not operate the machine tool;
- Operators that are physically tired or sleepy should not operate the machine tool;
- Please wear noise protecting earplug in advance if you need to expose with noises for long time;
- Please do not point the air gun toward any person. Please pay attention to the spattered cutting chips and cutting oil;
- Please pay attention to the weight during the transportation and setting process.
1.6.2 Precautions before the Connection of the Power Supply
In order to avoid fault of machine tool and personal injury, please read and understand below instructions before connecting the power supply.
Damaged cable and conductive wire may result in short-cut and electric shocking. Please check them carefully.
- Read the procedure description and understand the performance and operation methods of various instruments before the actual operation.
- Close the door tightly to prevent water, dust or cutting chips from entering into the NC equipment, control panel and operation panel.
- When grounded, it is highly prohibited to connect with other equipment. Otherwise, the overload of electrical equipment may result in fire accident.
- Measure the voltage of the factory before using the machine.
- The power supply must be connected according to below sequence: distribution board at the factory, main power supply of the machine tool, power supply of the machine tool, release of the emergency stop button, and reset.
- The power cord for the breaker of the main power supply of the machine tool must use the conductive wire with specified model.
- For the power switch at the factory, the main power cord at the side of the inner machine tool shall use the cable that could meet the necessary power safety standard.
- If cable is arranged at the bottom, the cutting chips may damage the cable. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent short-cut.
- Check whether the oil level in various oil tanks could meet the requirements.
- Check whether various switches and handles could work normally.
- Use the bar material with the diameter no less than 15mm and the length higher than 1m for grounding. In case no other grounding device buried in the ground, the grounding end into the earth should be no less than 1m.
- The third grounding method is necessary and the grounding resistance should be no less than 100Ω.
- The grounding line should not be too close with water pipes or other buried articles.
- Check and confirm the correct connection of all connectors. Poor connection may result in fault of machine tool.
- Check and confirm the pipeline connection of oil pipe and air pipe. The oil leakage or air leakage resulting from poor connection of pipeline may cause fault of the machine tool.
- The main power switch of the machine tool should be under OFF status when the power switch of the factory is not connected. Otherwise, sudden connection of power supply of the factory may damage the main power switch of the machine tool.
- Replenish oil in time according to the level of cutting oil.
1.6.3 Precautions after the Connection of Power Supply
- After the connection of the power supply, please confirm the connection of the power indicator on the control panel.
- After power connection and before the information display on the monitor, operators should not touch any operation keys on the operation panel. Unintentional touching of the operation switch may result in the faulty operation of the machine tool and personnel injury.
- Check the existence of oil leakage and air leakage status, and check the correctness of all measurement instruments.
- Check the running status of the fan after power connection. The machine tool may be damaged due to internally accumulated heat if the machine tool is operated in regardless of the fault of the fan.
- Check the working status of lubrication pump after power connection. In case various shafts are running without lubrication, the sliding surface and ball screw would suffer wear and tear, which would further result in fault of the machine tool.
- Check the correctness of the reading on pressure gauge.
- Check the lubrication status of cutting head and moving parts.
- Check safety devices.
If the long-term unused machine tool is used immediately, some moving parts may come across faults because the machine tool would have to work under unstable status due to thermal expansion of some components. Therefore, thermal treatment should be made for such machine tools.
- Preheat the main spindle and the feeding spindle. Automatically run the machine tool for 10 to 20 minutes at 1/2 to 1/4 of the maximum rotation speed of the machine.
- During the automatic running process, check the running status of various positions of the machine tool.
- Please do not increase the rotation speed of the machine tool when the machine tool is not thoroughly lubricated. Due to the adhesion of the bearing, the rotation speed could only be increased gradually.
- Use the preheating procedure to run all functions of the machine tool.
- Caution! During the preheating process, the machine tool should reach the maximum rotation speed of the machine tool.
1.6.5 Precautions before the Operation of the Machine Tool
Flammable materials shall be kept away from all switching devices, control panels, main control panels and distribution boxes.
- The machining tools should meet the requirements of technical specification, dimension and model of the machine tool.
- Serious damaged cutters may result in personnel injuries. Therefore, it is necessary to replace the worn cutters with new cutters.
- For the convenience of safety checking, the working area should have sufficient lighting.
- The cutters and other articles around the machine tool or equipment should be properly stored to guarantee the unblocking of the channel.
- Cutters or other articles should not be placed on the main spindle box, knife tower, protection shield and similar components.
- Heat source and direct sunshine may result in deformation of the machine tool and influence the precision of the machine tool.
- Check the lubrication situation of the motor and check whether there is any improper lubrication situation in sliding components.
- Ensure the length of cutting tool is within the specified length and avoid interference among cutting tools.
- After the installation of cutting tool, please make trail production again.
- Confirm whether bolts of various components are well installed.
- Precautions for the Operation of Machine
- Please get full understand the functions and purposes of various components and equipment before commencement of the operation.
- Material and equipment should be clipped to the desired position and the operation should be started from the shallow cutting and small volume conveying.
- It is highly prohibited to adjust the spray nozzle of the cooling liquid in front of it. The position of cutting oil nozzle should be adjusted after the shutdown of the machine tool.
- It is highly prohibited to touch switch with wet hands.
- It is highly prohibited to operate switch with gloves. Otherwise, the machine tool may come across faults.
- In the large machining period, the high machining temperature may result in fire accident. Please remove the machining clips in time.
- In the running period of the machine tool, please confirm that the motor and other components do not have any abnormal noises.
- During the machining of special work pieces, it is necessary to take proper treatment measures according to the technical requirements.
- Perform visual checking for the operation panel switch and correctly operate the switch.
- Check the correctness of pressure gauge.
- In handling large work pieces, the working should meet the requirements of safety rules.
- Mooring ropes and lifting appliances should be firm enough to lift up the loaded articles. Moreover, such mooring ropes and lifting appliances should meet the compulsory regulations.
- Check the fixing and clamping tools.
- Properly organize your hair and sleeves to prevent them from being rolled into the machine tool.
- It is highly prohibited to use hands or other tools to touch any rotating work pieces and cutting tool.
- Use brush to remove the cutting chips on the cutting tool.
- The accessories and cutting tools could only be sorted after the shutdown of the machine tool.
- Please wear frequently used safety protection equipment during the handling of hazardous materials.
- Precautions in the Running Period of the Machine Tool
- The bodies of operators and other articles should not get in touch with the running machine tool.
- In case of any abnormities, please make sure about the current situations and shut down the power supply first before solving the problems.
- In case of any abnormities of the equipment performance, please press down the emergency stop button first to stop the running of the machine tool. Switch off the power supply if necessary.
- No person other than the operators should enter into the operation area.
- When dismount work piece without the tray changeover devices, sufficient space should be preserved between work piece and cutting tool. Meanwhile, stop the rotation of cutting tools.
In handling the cutting chips pasted on the cutting tool or chips falling into the working bench, it is necessary to use hands to push off the cutting chips for treatment. Therefore, operators should stop the machine tool, wear gloves and use brush to clear them off.
- Precautions in Automatic Running
- It is highly prohibited to lean against the machine tool during the automatic running of the machine tool.
- Shut down all doors before operation.
- During the running of some components, it is highly prohibited to touch them. They could only be touched after the operation has fully stopped.
- Please do not open any door or protective covers during the running of the machine tool.
- Pay attention to the operation of other switches. Perform visual checking for the switch on the operation panel and confirm them again before operating the switch.
- Before the operations like rotation of main spindle, changeover of cutting tools, axial movement and etc, please confirm the safety status of these operations.
- In running new program, confirmation should be arranged. After confirming that the program does not have any defects, use mode of single-program section to machine the work piece. Start automatic running if there is no problem found in the confirmation process.
- Please do not touch any other switch during the automatic running process.
- Please do not open the door during the automatic running process.
- Preventive Measures in the Shutdown Period of Working
The machine tool may run automatically if the power supply is not disconnected according to specified procedure.
- If the operator needs to leave the machine tool temporarily upon the completion of the work, it is necessary to turn off the power switch on the operation panel and then disconnect the breaker.
- Turn off the power supply according to below procedure:
1) Check the existence of warning signs or abnormal situations of the machine.
2) Press down emergency stop button.
3) Turn off the power switch on the operation panel.
4) Turn off the main power switch.
- Preventive Measures after the Completion of the Work
- Please always keep the cleanness and tidy of the machine tool or equipment.
- The clearing work should only be commenced after the shutdown of the machine tool or equipment.
- Set various components of the machine tools to their corresponding initial states.
- Check the pollution status of cooling liquid, hydraulic oil and lubricant agent and replace them if pollution exists.
- When leave the machine tool upon the completion of one shift, it is necessary to pressure down below switches in sequence: emergency stop button, switch of main breaker of the machine tool and the switch of the power supply of the factory.
- Upon the completion of the work, turn off the power supply in sequence, clear the machine tool, apply lubricant oil on various sliding surfaces and apply rust-prevention oil. Special care should be taken in using the machining oil.
- Upon the completion of the machining operation, clear the inner side of the machine tool and sort the surrounding area of the machine tool. After proper lubrication of all necessary positions, adjust the working bench at the central position of the machine tool.
- In places with large volume of rain or high relative humidity, please apply a layer of rust-prevention oil upon the completion of the work to avoid rusting.
- Precautions during the Maintenance and Checking Work
- Before the maintenance, please confirm the main power supply is switched off.
- The electrical control panel and electrical components may still have certain electricity even after the disconnection of the main power supply. Please check and confirm that these electrical components do not have any electricity before the commencement of the maintenance work.
- Except for the reasons of repair and maintenance, all doors and protective covers should be closed.
- In order to prevent any authorized persons from turning on the switch on the operation panel of the power switch box, it is necessary to place the warning sign “Equipment is under maintenance, please do not touch the equipment switch with your hands”.
- It is highly prohibited to dismount or modify the devices or circuits with safety function, like baffle blocks for restricting the stroke of transmission indicator, limit switch, interlock limit switch and etc.
- Operators and maintenance personnel should carefully read and observe warning signs attached on the machine tool. It is highly prohibited to damage or remove such signs.
- Only personnel passing professional training could engage in the maintenance, checking, modification and oil supply and cleaning work for the machine tool. They shall observe all instructions. The power supply should be disconnected before the commencement of such works.
- It is highly prohibited to operate the machine tool when the cover of the machine tool is opened for repair or maintenance.
- It is highly prohibited to use compressed air during the maintenance and cleaning of the machine tool. Otherwise, dust and tiny foreign matters would flow into the bearing or sliding components.
- During the repair, maintenance and cleaning of the machine tool, it is necessary keep the ground clean and free of water and oil.
- During the maintenance of the machine tool at place at height, it is necessary to use appropriate bracket or ladder and wear safety hamlet.
- Please use specified protection fuse and conductive wire.
- Arrange repair components and working environment in advance to ensure the environment would be beneficial for the normal ongoing of the repair work.
- Dispose the unnecessary components and wasted oil according to the regulated procedure.
- Records should be made and preserved for the repair, maintenance and checking work for the reference of future work.
- Please only use specified lubricating oil and lubricating grease.
- Replenish and replace the lubrication oil of various components periodically.
- Upon the completion of repair and maintenance work, please apply rust prevention oil on various components of the machine tool.
- Please use specified tools like non-adjustable wrench and open-end wrench to perform the repair and maintenance work.
- The person-in-charge should observe the requirements of various directions of the machine tool.
- Upon the completion of daily work on each day, please clear the machine tool for the convenience of finding potential faults of the machine tool.
- Check the correctness of the readings on various instruments.
- Wear gloves in clearing the machining chips.
- Check the safety status of working area after removing all dangerous articles.
- Precautions in Handling Electrical Components
- It is highly prohibited to strike on the control panel of the machine.
- Please use required electric cable to perform the initial wiring of the machine tool. Moreover, excessive long cable should be avoided if the initial wiring needs to be arranged on the ground. It is necessary to take measures to prevent the cable from being damaged by cutting chips.
- The control panel should be tightly sealed and should not be exposed to air. Direct sunshine may damage the components on the power control board. The door of the control panel should not be maintained at OPEN status for long time when power supply is connected.
- The devices and components within the power control panel should use designated standard products.
- During the repair and maintenance of electrical equipment, it is necessary to switch off the power switch on the operation panel, disconnect the electrical control cabinet and then disconnect the power supply of the factory. Never move warning signs when the power supply is disconnected. No person other than the authorized operator should operate on the machine tool.
- Take particular care in handing the electrical devices of the machine tool.
- Clean the fan and filtering device in the electrical control panel periodically.
- Check the program coding on the screen of the operation panel.
- Precautions during Lubrication
Lubricating oil plays significant role in the durability and precision of machine tools. Therefore, it is necessary to perform comprehensive maintenance for the whole oil supply equipment.
- Guarantee the bottom of the oil supply tank is clean, dry and free of chips. Please be carefully in operating the oil supply tank.
- Users should check the machine tool periodically to clear the inner side at the bottom of the tank and replace oil if any foreign matters in the oil. In order to avoid damping and precipitation, please do not replace all old oil with new oil on one-time basis.
- Only use designated oil and add oil to the designated oil level.
- In order to maintain the cleanliness of the oil supply pipeline, it is necessary to prevent dust, moisture and cutting chips from entering into the oil tank.
- Check the outlet if the oil level is decreased rapidly.
- The filter on hydraulic pump and filter in pipeline should be replaced at least once per year.
- Precautions in the Handling of Cooling Agent
For water-soluble coolant, the mixing and increasing of microorganism may reduce the function of rust preventing layer and the machining capacity of the machine tool. Below requirements should be observed if water-soluble coolant is used.
- Water-soluble coolant shows basicity and could dissolve fats and oils. Therefore, it may damage the skins. The operators should be quite careful in handling it.
- For water-soluble coolant, the mixing and increasing of microorganism may reduce the function of rust preventing layer and the machining capacity of the machine tool. Therefore, the coolant should be replaced immediately in case of any rotten smell.
- At the end of the work, the operation personnel should thoroughly clear off the cutting chips. Moreover, they should wipe off the water-soluble coolant on various back surfaces, rotating devices, large supporting plate and vertical column and apply one layer of lubricating oil.
- Water-soluble coolant contains rust prevention ingredients and so there would be no problem in case of damping of the product. However, the product may have rust if it is excessively dry. Please apply rust prevention oil upon the completion of the operation.
- The dilution methods and thinner used should be different according to the coolant. The specific requirements of the thinner manufacturer should be observed.
- Industrial water contains large amount of microorganisms. It is necessary to check them before using them as thinner or supplementary water. It is recommended to use tap water.
- It is recommended to open the cover and clean the ball screw, various limit switches, transmission motors of various connection positions, spindle-X, spindle-Y, spindle-Z and so forth in each six month,
- It is prohibited to use chemical method to process soluble machining oil. Such methods may have negative influence to the paint layer and resin work piece in sealing box.
- Under the function of various kinds of oil used in various inlets, effective maintenance methods should be adopted according to the status of the machining oil.
- Precautions in the Setting of Machine Tool
The setting work of machine tool refers to various operation procedures before the production and after the connection of power supply. The setting of the machine tool should include program input, work piece arrangement, compensation measurement of cutting tools, program checking and machining test.
- The design of the machine tool is applicable for the personnel passing training. In case two or more operators are working simultaneously, they should pay special attention to the mutual communications. In case one operator is pressing down the button on the control panel or moving the machine tool when the other operator is machining any work piece or operating the clamping device or machining equipment, the operators themselves and other operation personnel may be seriously injured.
- Confirm whether the maximum rotation speed of the main spindle in the setting is lower than the maximum speed of various clamping devices and equipment. Otherwise, work piece and equipment may eject from the machine tool to injure operators or damage the machine tool.
- Fix the work piece and machining equipment to the desired position. During the testing process, it is necessary to pay attention to safety in setting the machining depth and transmission speed. Otherwise, work piece or equipment may eject from the machine tool to injure operators or damage the machine tool.
- In order to guarantee the machining quality and the outer appearance, it is necessary to select the most suitable machining equipment, clamping devices and machining method. Confirm whether there are any problems in the machining process. Otherwise, work piece or equipment may eject from the machine tool to injure operators or damage the machine tool. Besides, the machining precision of work piece may be affected.
- Confirm whether machining equipment, clamping devices, fixing device for work piece and work piece are fixed firmly. Otherwise, work piece or equipment may eject from the machine tool to injure operators or damage the machine tool.
- Before the running of the main spindle, please check and ensure the equipment is fixed to the desired position and whether the setting of the rotation speed of the main spindle is correct. Otherwise, the work piece or equipment may eject from the machine tool to injure operators or damage the machine tool.
- When operating large work piece or dismounting equipment, appropriate movement equipment like crane or hoisting machine must be used. Otherwise, large work pieces may injure operation personnel or damage the machine tool.
- It is highly prohibited to touch the lamp in the machine tool. If the lamp installed in the machine tool is glow lamp, the lamp may still have high temperature after the disconnection of the power supply of the machine tool.
- In the setting of the machine tool, the lighting lamp should be opened for safety consideration. Poor lighting may result in difficulty in the internal checking and trail operation and may even damage the machine tool and injure the operation personnel.
- Other Precautions
- In case of any system problems, please take appropriate recovery measures as soon as possible.
- It is highly prohibited to place your body into the dangerous working scope of the machine tool.
- In case of any earthquake, windstorm, flood or fire accident, please stop the running of the machine tool immediately and turn off the power supply.
- Incorrect power supply may cause failure of the machine tool in running normally. Disconnection of power supply due to power interruption or thunder in the running process of the machine tool may result in accidental operation, serious accidents and machine tool damage. Please shut down the main power switch in case of any abnormities of the power voltage.
- In case of shutdown of the machine due to power interruptions, if the power supply could be connected, please check whether the programs, parameters and compensation data are damaged. The machine tool may come across faults due to the damage of above mentioned data.
- Measure the performance of noise protection devices around the equipment to avoid incorrect operation of the equipment.
- When lift up work piece, machine tool or components, please use ropes and lifting devices with appropriate specification.
- In case forklift, hoisting machine, ropes, lifting devices and so forth are used in the movement and transportation process, it is necessary to check whether such devices and equipment have any problems. Please replace or repair them in case any problems have been found.
- The keys for the switches involving with safety should be preserved by special persons.
- Considering the high temperature of the internal lighting lamp, please do not touch the lamp immediately after the shutdown of the equipment.
- Please arrange routine checking and periodical checking according to the operation instructions.
- Fire Prevention Measures
- Before using the machine tool
- It is highly prohibited to place any flammable materials and device at the area around the machine tool. Otherwise, fire accident may occur.
- Please confirm sufficient machining oil is available and the machining oil does not have any pollution.
- Please get away from fire source and fire extinguisher should be available at the machining area.
- During the Using of the Machine Tool:
- During the running of the machine tool, it is highly prohibited to smoke around the machine tool.
- Special care should be taken to avoid fire accidents when the machine tool is used to processing flammable materials like wooden products, plastics, magnesium metal and etc.
- Since the surface of the cutting tool contacting with materials would likely to generate spark, the operators should maintain continuous monitoring for the surface when non-soluble machining is used.
- If machining liquid with water is used in the machining of magnesium metal, the machining chips may react with water to generate hydrogen, which would further result in fire accidents. Therefore, machining oil without water should be used. However, the soluble machining liquid that could restrain the generation of hydrogen could be used.
- During the machining process, please do not add any other liquid except for specified machining oil to the work piece.
- During the machining process, please confirm that the machining oil could be added onto the work piece.
- During the machining process, it is highly prohibited to perform welding operation or flammable work around the machine tool.
After the completion of the working of the machine tool:
- Please confirm that the power supply of the machine tool is completely disconnected.
- Check and confirm that there is no fire risk around the machine tool.
- User Tasks of the Machine
Observe inspection plan
More than once per day
Select appropriate measurement equipment
More than once per day
Perform inspection and make corresponding record to ensure the component could meet the requirement.
More than once per day
Implement routine maintenance
Maintenance of the Working Site
Cleaning and safety arrangement for the working site
- Arrange maintenance for the cutting tools, brackets for work piece and manual equipment
-Manage the check list and indicators
More than once per day
-Maintain the working site at daily status
-Report the situation immediately upon the discovery of any problems
-Perform routine checking on daily, weekly and yearly basis
-Arrange inspection and maintenance
More than once per day
Could understand and use the absolute coordinate and increment of coordinate
Could use the automatic and automatic control function
Could set the offset of clamping device and cutting tool
Could select and set the cutting tool to be processed
Write program, and understand and apply standard G code and M code
Could use MDI mode
Could modify/edit program
Could test and run program
Could adjust and monitor the abrasion offset of cutting tool
1.8 Machinery safety
1.8.1 General Safety Rules
- Working Clothes
1) Please select comfortable and well-fitting working clothes. If necessary, please tie the lower ends of the upper garments and trousers to avoid being rolled into the machine tool.
2) Any opening on the clothes should be sewed in time.
- Working Cap
1) Personnel working around the machine tool should wear safety helmet.
2) Women and workers with long hairs should push hairs fully into safety helmet or towel.
1) Operators should wear safety shoes.
- Safety Device
1) Please select appropriate safety equipment and get familiar with the using method of the equipment.
2) Damaged safety equipment should not be used (like safety google and safety helmet).
1.8.2 Safety Requirements of Hand-operated tools
- General Requirements
1) Dirt on hands like oil and water should be completely wiped off.
2) Keep the working site clean.
3) Hand-operated tools should not be used in applications beyond their basic purposes.
4) Only use tools with reliable quality.
5) Hand-operated tools should be used within their respective using scope.
- Safety Requirements of Hand-operated Instruments
1) Using of socket wrench and open spanner
- Socket wrench and open spanner should not be used as supporting tools of hand hammer;
- The wrench in compliance with specification should be used together with supporting nuts;
- Special care should be taken in using hand-operated tools;
- Please be careful in using hand-operated tool to avoid personnel injury or falling off of cutting tools;
- Considering the large size, adjustable spanner is not applicable for small bolts;
- Never use sleeve or hammer to tighten wrench;
- The tension force may generate forward action force;
- Never use steel plate between wrench and nut to increase the contacting area.
2) Using of Screwdriver
- Screwdriver with certain specification should be used together with key groove with matched dimension and shape;
- Never use screwdriver with burr;
- The using of screwdriver should be safe and reliable to guarantee that it would not have any movement;
- Insulated screwdriver should be used in the electrical working period. Electrical inspection screwdriver should be used during the electrical testing process.
1.8.3 Safety Requirements of Main Work of the Machine Tool
- Safety Requirements of the Machine Tool
1) Tools or materials should not be placed on the machine tool.
2) The machine tool should not be stopped if the feeding working is ongoing.
3) It is highly prohibited to use hand or tool to stop the machine tool during the running process of the machine tool.
4) The work piece or cutting tool should be correctly installed.
5) If the cutting capacity could not reach the requirements, please replace with new cutting tools immediately.
6) Safety google should be used to avoid personnel injuries resulting from spattered cutting chips.
7) Brush or special cleaning tools should be used to clean cutting chips. It is highly prohibited to use bare hand to clean cutting chips.
8) Please be careful to prevent your hands from touching the cutting edge.
9) During the cutting or rotating process, it is highly prohibited to perform measurement for work piece.
- Drilling and Cutting Requirements
1) Hands, head or feet should be far away from rotating spindle or drill bits.
2) Please use drill bits with reliable quality, and it is highly prohibited to use drill bits with cracks.
3) If the processing capacity could not reach the desired requirements during the drilling and cutting process, please grind the drill bits in advance.
4) The installation and dismounting of drill bits could only be performed after the complete shutdown of the main spindle.
5) Use bench clamp or wedge to fix some small work pieces. However, never use hand to fix work pieces.
6) Perform drilling and cutting operation for thin work piece on hard board like wooden boards.
7) When the top of the drill bit is penetrated into the work piece, it is necessary to reduce the feeding speed to avoid rotation of work piece.
8) When drill bit stops within work piece, please stop the machine tool and pull out the drill bit with hands.
9) When pull out the drill bit, puller could be used to replace hammer.
10) It is necessary to reduce the seam between main spindle and working bench when pull off the drill bit. In such cases, wooden articles may be placed on the working bench.
1.9 Electrical Safety
1.9.1 Safety of Electrical Equipment
- Adopt Explosion-proof Structure
Considering the existence of materials with potential explosion risk like gas, flammable materials, dust and so forth, it is highly prohibited to generate any spark in the working process of the machine tool. Therefore, various switches and other devices should adopt explosion-proof structure. Explosion-proof structure consists of pressure explosion-proof type, liquid explosion-proof type and special explosion-proof type.
- Checking of Electrical Equipment
1) It is necessary to perform safety checking for insulated wire, insulated cover, conductive wire, cable and protective fence of switch. Arrange safety checking for electrical equipment according to the requirements.
2) Check the grounding status of equipment and the breaking status of conductive wire.
3) In regardless of the working status of fuse box and various safety systems, checking should be arranged.
- Prevention for the Hazards of Static Electricity
1) In the areas with dust, flammable and explosive materials and gases, the occurrence of static discharge may result in explosion.
2) The conveying of materials like gasoline and liquid, cutting of solid material and printing operation would likely to generate static discharge.
3) In order to reduce the generation of static electricity, it is necessary to take measures to reduce friction, maintain the flow speed and guarantee proper grounding of equipment.
4) If necessary, use inhibitor or air ionization to remove static electricity.
1.9.2 Electrical Hazards and Prevention Measures
- Body Resistance and Electric Shocking
In case of electricity in human body, the possibility of electric shocking would be quite high.
High voltage has high risk to human. Some persons think that the voltage of 100V is relatively safe. However, there are also some death accidents caused by the voltage of 35V.
The human body has strong capacity in resisting current, which could reduce the flowing speed of current in human body. However, even low voltage would have significant influence to human body. The current and electric shocking degree are shown as below:
Feeling Degree of Human Body
Feeling Degree of Human Body
Less than 1mA
Feel weak current
Higher than 50mA
Danger, has electric shocking risk
Less than 5mA
Higher than 100mA
Muscle contraction and get out of control
1.9.3 Over-current Relay
When the voltage is higher than the rated value, over-current relay could resist against current and protect the circuit. Over-current relay consists of electric type, thermal inductance type and magnetic inductance type. Among these types, thermal inductance type is the most generally used type. Thermal inductance over-current relay is manufactured with dual-layer metal plates. When the current in circuit is higher than the rated value, the dual-layer metal board would suffer electric shock and shut down the current due to heating up.
Direct heating type
It directly conducts current to dual-layer metal board and has high sensitivity to movement. However, its resistance would result in the loss of some currents.
The dual-layer metal board is covered with asbestos for thermal insulation. This type also has thermal component coils. One side of the thermal components is connecting with dual-layer metal board for the conduction of current.
Thermal release type
Current would not transmit signals to dual-layer metal board. Instead, it would only transmit signals to thermal components to generate slow activation.
1.9.4 Fault Diagnosis and Various Switch Controls
- Inactivity of Control and Switch Function
1) Electro-deposition resulted from short-cut.
2) Low switching volume.
3) The working time of motor is too long.
4) Negative phase damping.
5) Remanence induction is relatively high.
6) Low voltage cause vibration of contacting points, which further results in electro-deposition.
7) The part of magnetic core is too long or the part entering into the oscillator is too short.
8) The oil on magnetic core is too sticky.
- Abnormal Attenuation of Current on Contracting Points
1) Electric arc may be generated due to above reasons from 1 to 5.
2) Frequent operation.
3) Electric arc may be generated due to poor connection or dirt on contacting points.
- Release the Contact Point and Take below Measures:
1) Parallel connection of contact points.
2) Remove foreign matters on contact points.
- Fault of Thermal Induction Type Over-voltage Relay
1) Burning-out of heater.
2) Operation performance fault.
- Shortcut of Phase Position
1) Phase position shortcut arising from dust or humidity.
2) Phase position shortcut arising from heating.
- Reasons for Fire of Coil
2) Over voltage (exceeds 110% of the rated voltage)
3) Low voltage (lower than 85% of the rated voltage)
4) Deterioration of passive cutting liquid
5) Fault of the moving contact points
6) Excessively high frequency in the using of switches.
- Reasons of Electromagnetic Vibration
1) Low voltage
2) Foreign matters on contact points
3) Rusting of electrode
4) Lack in shielding coil
1.10 Industrial Accidents
1.10.1 Reasons of Industrial Accidents
- Human factors:
- Psychological factors: excessive fatigue, negligence, non-proficiency, violence, excitation, carelessness, wilful misconducts and etc.
- Body factors: negative influence of physical strength, physical handicap, diseases, drink, insufficient sleep, fatigue and etc.
- Others: clothes, working environment in factory and etc.
- Physical factors:
- Building (environment): insufficient ventilation, poor lighting, narrow working places and narrow passageway.
- Facilities” poor performance of the safety protection system, damage of machine tool, damage of tools, improper installation of supporting equipment and etc.
1.11 Industrial Safety and Protection Measures
1.11.1 Safety Signs and Colors
- Working Environment
1) Lamps and Lighting: if possible, please use daylight lighting (4500lux).
Strength of Illuminating Ray
High precision work
2) Ventilation: the most ideal temperature, relative humidity and air flow conditions are shown as below:
1m/s (air flow)
Generally, noises refer to uncomfortable sounds of human being. Different designs would have different requirements for noise levels. Generally, the requirements are between 85db and 95db.
1.11.2 Fire Accidents and Explosion Accidents
- Preventive measures for fire and explosion accidents
1) Fire sources should be controlled to avoid any risk of fire accident in surrounding areas.
2) Necessary measures should be taken to prevent electricity fault, including allocation of backup power supply. The situations for electricity fault during work would be quite complicate and may result in fire accidents.
3) Comprehensive checking should be arranged for pipelines and equipment to confirm the existence of flammable gas or air leakage.
4) In order to avoid fault of machine tool and mechanical components, it is necessary to equip automatic control system and re-arrange valves to avoid the occurrence of mixing. Moreover, the switch status should be clearly indicated.
5) Sufficient distance should be maintained between fire sources to avoid the occurrence of fire accidents.
6) Fire protection devices should be arranged at appropriate positions to ensure fire protection devices could be used in case of fire accidents.
General Fire Accidents
Oil Type Fire Accidents
Electrical Fire Accidents
Foam fire-extinguishing device
Powder fire-extinguishing device
CO2 fire-extinguishing device
1.11.3 First-aid Measures
- Emergency rescue measures should be taken:
- Cloth bag
- Cotton gauze
- Fixed carriers
- Convergence rubber belt
- Clamp wood
- Boric acid solution
- Ammonia water
- First-aid Measures
1) Knife wound (pierce, wound and scratch)
- Never use unclean paper or cloth to touch the wound.
- Let the wound expose to the ambient environment to avoid being irritated.
- Apply some mercurochrome on the wound and then use bandage to bind it up.
- Keep the surrounding area of the wound clean.
- Clear off the dirt and mud around the wound.
2) Crush Injury and Sprain
- Apply iodine on the position of crush injury or sprain (please do not use mercurochrome and iodine simultaneously).
- Apply cold compress on the position of crush injury or sprain.
- The injuries on ear, breast and abdomen should be treated by doctors.
- In case of venous bleeding (black red blood), please use bacteria free surgical compress or use hand to press the bandage on the bleeding position and lift up the position of the high point.
- Arterial bleeding (red blood) should be taken care by doctors It is necessary to use bacteria free surgical compress, acupuncture pressure technique and emergency hemostatic method to stop the bleeding.
- In case of bleeding from hypodermic injection, perform hot compress upon the completion of cold compress.
4) Burn Injury
- Under first-degree burn (skin is red and painful), use cold compress or boric acid solution to compress on the injured skin.
- Under second-degree burn (skin in reddish and has bubbles), the treatment method is same with those of first-degree burn. However, the water bubble should not be pierced.
- Under third-degree burn (Damage and death of subcutaneous tissue), use the treatment method of second-degree burn and seek help from doctors.
- If the burn area is higher than 30% of the body, which indicate first-degree burn, the situation would be quite dangerous. The situation must be treated by doctors.
1.11.4 Machinery Safety Regulations
- Safety Management Regulations in the Working Site
1) Compulsory installation of safety device for dangerous equipment.
The dangerous machine tool without safety protection device should not be disposed, rented or installed.
2) Dangerous Machine Tool:
Dangerous machine tool equipment including grinding machine, pressure machine, cutting machine, saw, planning machine, welding machine and so forth should be installed with safety device with corresponding specification and capacity.
3) Categories of Safety Devices
Below safety devices could be taken to keep far away from danger and guarantee the safety of work.
- Safety device controlled by two hands.
- Magnetic safety device.
- Scanning type protection and safety device.
- Protective door type safety device.
- Disconnection type safety device.
- Pull-put type safety device.
- Electrical lighting safety device.
- Safety relief device.
4) Hazard Prevention Measures
- The safety devices provided by users to prevent the occurrence of danger and hazard of equipment.
- Safety regulations should be observed by the workers during working process.
5) Hazardous Work
- Without the prior consent of relative departments, users should not manufacture, install or reconstruct any machine tool and equipment with danger risk.
- The machine tool or equipment without the performance test of relative departments should not be used.
6) Working Restriction in Dangerous Workplace
- Dangerous work should only be performed by skilled workers.
7) Power Interruptions
- Appropriate power interruption device should be equipped for each set of machine tool.
- Emergency stop device should be provided by devices like running pulley.
- Safety Management Regulations in Workplace
1) Passageway and Workplace
- No barriers should be arranged at the range within 2m of the passageway.
- The width of the passageway between two machine tools should be no less than 80cm.
- Emergency exit: at least two emergency exits should be arranged.
- Workplace using explosive or flammable materials
- Outdoor permanent workplace with more than 50 workers
- For staircase with the height of 5m, the spacing of staircase wells should be 5m.
- At least one side of the staircase should have handrail.
- Emergency staircase: for the underground staircase with more than 20 persons and workplace on floor 2 or higher shall have at least two outdoor emergency staircases.
3) Structure of Temporary Passageway
- The gradient of sloping should be less than 35°. Unless otherwise installed with handrail with the height less than 2m for steps, slopes with angle above 15°should have appropriate anti-slippery device.
- The places with the risk of falling off should be installed with solid protective fence with the height no less than 75cm.
- In case the axial length of temporary passageway is more than 15m, one protective fence should be arranged for each 10m.
- For temporary lifting platform with the height higher than 8m, one backup lifting platform should be arranged for each 7m.